Modernization of machines new Ferrari F1 drivers
In the offseason, engineers from Maranello made a substantial upgrade to the Lancia-D50: the engine power was increased, which was no longer a carrier element of the chassis, and the fuel tanks moved to the traditional place for those years behind the rear axle. However, even without these improvements, Lancia-Ferrari became the main favorites of the 1956 championship, especially as Fangio, who was left without a seat, became the new leader of the team (Luigi Musso and Peter Collins also became new pilots). The beginning of the season was quite unsuccessful for the three-time world champion: he won his already traditional victory in Argentina by taking the car from Musso. In Monaco, he “thanked” Luigi with a good kick, but then he himself could not resist not entering the wall, after which he moved to Collins’s car and finished second. “Young” in the meantime, also did not sleep: in Belgium and France, Collins won, and second place in these Grand Prix got the car journalist Paul Frere and Castellotti. Fangio finally won at Silverstone, and Collins on the car of the Spaniard Alfonso de Portago became the second. This was followed by another victory of the Argentine Maestro at the Nurburgring, and he regained the lead in the championship.
Collins could still claim the title, and it would seem that with the status of the team leader, which Fangio had, Collins and Castellotti were given too much freedom. Enzo himself on this point were roughly the same views: played leaders, and that’s enough (meaning Collins), – and in the final Italian Grand Prix he ordered Peter to give his car to Fangio who had an accident, who finished second, won his fourth championship. Collins, according to some researchers, himself voluntarily giving the car to Fangio (which is unlikely), eventually became the third, letting Moss go ahead; Castellotti and Musso finished sixth and eleventh. The cars prepared for the next season, although in essence were the further development of the Lancia-D50, no longer had anything to do with the creation of Yano, both in appearance (the famous side pontoons disappeared, which were unnecessary after the transfer of the fuel tanks) and in the design. Officially, the cars still continued to carry the D50 index, but their factory designation 801 became more famous. Fangio left for Maserati, and he was replaced by Hawthorne, who returned. Mike, like Collins, Musso, Castellotti, was a high-class pilot, but it was simply impossible to resist Fangio that year.
Drivers of different seasons
Ferrari could still get a pair of victories, but they were intercepted by the rapidly gaining strength of the British team Vanwall. As a result, Ferrari racers did not rise above the three second places: Mousseau showed this result in Rouen and Aintree, and Hawthorn – at the Nurburgring. True, victories were won in the extraordinary Grand Prix of Syracuse, Naples and Reims, but by that time the races that were not included in the World Cup offset had already lost their former prestige. The logical outcome of the unsuccessful season was the rejection of the further use of the 801 and the transition to the new model 246, also called Dino, in honor of the son of Enzo Alfredo Dino Ferrari, an engine engineer who in 1956 created the 1.5-liter V6 Formula 2 engine. the world championship of Formula 1 in 1958, the working volume of this motor was increased to 2417 cm3 (hence the index 246), and even later – to 2451 cm3 and installed on the chassis, which also led its origin from Formula 2.
As the main “shock force” among Ferrari drivers we can mentioned in 1958 remained Hawthorn, Mousseau and Collins, joined by German Wolfgang von Trips and American Phil Hill. Speaking on the 246th, which then were the most powerful cars of Formula 1 (280 hp. Vs. 250-260 for BRM and Vanwall), they could seem to count on absolute superiority in the championship, especially since Fangio and the factory team Maserati stopped participation in Formula 1. However, the first four Grand Prix remained for the British brands: Cooper and Vanwall. True, Musso, finishing second in Argentina and Monaco, for some time headed the championship table, but in the Netherlands Ferrari could not rise above fifth place – the first four took Vanwall, BRM and Cooper. In Belgium, Hawthorn although ranked second, but all other places in the top five again occupied the British racing green. Only in France, Hawthorn could still win, and Collins won the next stage at Silverstone but for these hard-won successes had to pay a terrible price. In that year, the team lost two pilots: Mousseau died in Reims, and Collins died at the Nurburgring. Hawthorn, who remained after this the main hope of the team, did not win more, preferring to finish in the top five and collect additional points for the best laps. In Portugal, he finished second, but was disqualified for driving around the track for some time against the direction of travel. Mike’s main rival in the fight for the title, Stirling Moss, stood up for him, and Hawthorne was reinstated in second place. And this nobility of Moss, as it turned out at the final Grand Prix in Morocco, brought Hawthorne victory in the championship: they were separated by a single point. The results, shown by Collins and Musso before their fatal crashes, placed them in fifth and seventh places, and Hill and von Trips, who often spoke no less clearly, divided the tenth. Due to the number of pilots who received points, the total amount of Ferrari was 93 against 68 for Vanwall, but the fair system of the newly introduced Constructors’ Championship, taking into account one best result from each stage, scored only 40, while Vanwall – 48.
Impressed by the deaths of his colleagues, Hawthorn, after the end of the season, announced his retirement from the races (ironically, in January 1959, he himself died in a road accident). The first number Ferrari was Tony Brooks, who scored two wins in the season – at the French Grand Prix in Reims and the German Grand Prix at the Avus track in Berlin – and kept the odds for first place in the championship until the last stage. Hill also performed steadily, finishing twice in the second place and in the end took fourth place; American debutant Dan Gurney took points in three Grand Prix and was placed on the seventh line. Finally, Olivier Jandebien, a Belgian who had occasionally gotten behind the wheel of a Ferrari since 1956, Englishman Cliff Ellison, taken to the team on the recommendation of Hawthorne, and Frenchman Jean Bera, scored points once more. The latter also won one extra race for Ferrari in Aintree, and later died during support races before the German stage.
And yet to say that technical progress in Maranello stopped, it was impossible. John Certes, who later compared Ferrari of that time with a lock, a deep moat and a bridge raised from the outside world, was wrong: Ferrari was actively preparing for the season-61, when new cars with 1.5-liter engines were to start placed at the back – the design staff still managed to break the resistance of Enzo. While the boss verbally supported the British with their stillborn Intercontinental Formula project and thereby distracted them from the task of finding the right 1500 cube engine, Scuderia’s chief designer Carlo Kity, having carefully studied the Cooper bought in the off-season 1959-1960, based on the Ferrari-246 units, created some its similarity is a rear-engined 246P, in which the American Richie Ginter performed quite well at the Grand Prix of Monaco. The next start of this construction was scheduled for the Italian stage, but when it became known that the British teams would not take part in it, instead of a 2.5-liter engine, the 1.5-liter V6 was installed on the car, the one that Dino Ferrari developed and which in the improved the variant was intended for the championship-61. Von Trips in the car, now called the 156P, finished fifth in Monza, losing only to Hill, Ginter and Miress on 246 and Giulio Kabianka on a private Cooper with a Castellotti engine – a modernized Ferrari. This was the first sign of the future superiority of cars from Maranello.
Meanwhile, Kitty was working on upgrading the engine. The main change compared with the Dino Ferrari design was the angle of the collapse of the cylinders increased from 65 to 120 degrees. The power of the new engine increased to 190 liters (156P 1960 developed 180), and the weight significantly decreased and was 102 kg. We had to work on the chassis as well: leaving the 156P tubular space frame almost unchanged, it was equipped with a brand new body with a long protruding rear part (later abolished) and unusual front nostrils that gave Ferrari-156 an extremely predatory expression. The British, who lost two years in attempts to combat the introduction of new technical requirements and did not have a better engine than the Coventry Climax-FPF four years ago, developed about 150 liters and weighed 115 kg, immediately, nicknamed the new machine “shark noses.”
But as soon as Formula 1 moved to Zandvoort, the first two places were taken by von Trips and Hill. The real triumph fell to Ferrari in Belgium, where four (!) “Sharks” crossed the first line of the finish line: Hill, von Trips, Ginter and Jandebien. Even in France, where the main pilots of Ferrari got off, won the “one hundred and fifty-sixth” with the old engine of 65 degrees, announced for the race by the Italian Federation of auto racing teams for debutant Giancarlo Baghetti. In Aintree, the first three places were taken by von Trips, Hill and Ginter. And only at the Nurburgring, in this “green hell”, besides being watered with rain, did the human factor take revenge over the technical: Moss won, leaving behind two “sharks”; as Von Trips said after the finish, Moss’s skill was worth a second on the circle.
Ferrari’s plan was thwarted by putting Stirling Moss behind the steering wheel. In the winter of 1962, he offered Moss and team owner Rob Walker to abandon Lotus-18 and change it to Ferrari-156.
The new first pilot of Ferrari in 1963 was John Certes, a seven-time world champion in motorcycle racing, by that time already having three successful seasons in Formula 1 behind him. Miress remained the second pilot. The new design headquarters, headed by Forgieri, prepared for the new season a thoroughly improved 156B, which in its appearance no longer had anything in common with the “sharks” two years ago. But the engine remained essentially the same, only now it had a direct fuel injection system and produced 205 liters.
Certiz began his career at Ferrari with fourth place in Monaco, then finished third in the Netherlands. There also won the sixth place Ludovico Scarfiotti, who spent his first race in the world championship and to which this sixth place gave the opportunity to participate in individual Grand Prix in this and the next season. The following points Ferrari brought Certes at Silverstone, finishing second after the battle with Graham Hill, and at the Nurburgring IL Grande John, as Italian fans called the Certificate in the motorcycle races, scored its first victory in Formula 1, interrupting Ferrari’s series of failures. But the Grand Prix was marked for the team and a serious accident Miress, whose car, literally taking off on a straight line (by the way, called Flugplatz – “airfield”), caused the death of one of the marshals, and the Belgian racer after that stopped participating in Formula 1.
The victory of the Certificate in Germany, although it significantly raised the spirits in Maranello, was only an episode – the absolute favorite of the championship was Jim Clark on the Lotus-25, which had not a traditional tubular frame at the heart of the chassis, but a monocoque. That such a scheme belongs to the future, everyone understood, including Forgieri, who started developing a new semi-monocoque chassis: the middle part of the chassis was made in the form of a monocoque, to which fragments of a frame made of pipes were attached to the front and rear. The new 8-cylinder and 12-cylinder engines should have already been installed on this chassis; however, they were not yet ready for Monza, which was the traditional showcase for new products from the Commendator at that time, and the start of the Certiz was with the old V6. In Monza, he came down, as well as in the remaining Grand Prix of the USA, Mexico and South Africa, which remained until the end of the season, and took fourth place in the World Championship. Bandini, who replaced Miress at the wheel of the second car and became the fifth twice, shared 9-11 places with Ireland and Bonnier and in the Designers Cup of Ferrari was fourth, just two points behind Brabham.